THINKING, INTELLIGENCE, & CREATIVITY

THINKING (Read: Thinking, Fast and Slow (Penguin Press Non-Fiction) )

  • Associationism
    • Based on causal history- this is how one’s thoughts are formed.
    • Can be used as a theory of learning, thinking, mental structures, and implementation of thought.
  • Gestalt Theoretical Perspectives
    • Principle of Totality
      • Any conscious experience must be considered globally as the mind is a dynamic part of the whole system.
    • Principle of Psychophysical Isomorphism
      • correlational between conscious experience and cerebral activity
    • Productive Thinking
      • Max Weitheimer
      • solving a problem with insight
      • situation and environment interaction
    • Reproductive Thinking
      • solving a problem with previous knowledge
    • Fuzzy Trace Model – Dual Model
      • memory and reasoning
      • encoding information through verbatives and gist
        • Verbatives – exact memory in detail
        • Gist – semantic and conceptual
  • Concept formation is the process by which we learn to form classes of things, events, people and so forth.
    • Concepts are of 3 types:
      • Conjunctive – presence of at least two features
      • Rational – how objects relate to something else
      • Disjunctive – at least one of several features
    • Prototypes
      • Eleanor Posch
      • ideal models used as a prime example
      • They are highly representative
    • Faulty concepts
      • Thinking errors 
      • related to behaviour or personality maladjustment
      • All or nothing thinking
  • Strategies of Concept Attainment for Problem Solving
    • Simultaneous scanning
      • Rational thinking : use of information to rationally eliminate hypothesis and think through to reach the one that can be true
      • Ideal strategy if reasoning and memory are good
      • Rigorous
    • Successive scanning
      • Tests a hypothesis at a time and moves towards a conclusion
      • Guessing game. It is easier, requires less time and memory 
    • Conservative focusing
      • Taking an example as representing the concept and using it to judge other examples
      • Less efficient if the chosen concept is incorrect
      • Best strategy for conjunctive problems
      • Require less thinking and time
      • Much better than successive scanning
    • Focus gambling
      • Uses one card but changes more than one feature at a time
      • If lucky less time or else more time
      • Do it
        • if solving the problem in a few trials brings big rewards
        • less to lose 
  • Semantic Dimension
    • Understanding meanings of word
    • Takes longer and is slower than syntax
    • Maybe dependent on intellectual development and maturity
  • Semantic Differential
    • Rating scale to measure commutative meaning of objects, events and concepts
    • Commutative is the suggestive significance of a word apart from its explicit and recognized meaning
    • Evaluation, potency and activity
      • Evaluation
        • good-bad
      • Potency
        • strong-weak
      • Activity
        • active-passive
  • Recognition by components
    • Irving Biedesman (1987)
    • recognition of objects by breaking them up into smaller recognizable shapes called geons.
    • Geons are 3D shapes
      • Eg. cylinder, cones
        • can be assembled in many ways
        • < 36 geons present as components
    • While perceiving objects we focus on
      • Edges
        • enables to maintain the same perception of the object regardless of viewing orientation 
      • Concavities
        • the area where two geons meet,
        •  helping in separation of geons
    • Perception of objects doesn’t change regardless of angle because of viewpoint invariance
      • may be due to invariant edge properties:
        • curvature, parallel lines, co-termination, asymmetry, co-linearity
    • Template matching model
      • whole image to a stored representation of the whole object
    • Feature matching model
      • discriminating features from the images and matches them with known features of the object
    • Configurable model
      • Distinguishing among objects that share same basic parts of structure with a prototype

INTELLIGENCE & CREATIVITY

  • Intelligence is the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment.

History

  • Sir Francis Galton 
    • measured reaction time, hand strength, sensory acuity, and skull size
    • believed that people from privileged backgrounds were more intelligent
    • His mental skill measures were not valid or reliable because results were not complying
  • Alfred Binet
    • 2 assumptions
      • mental abilities increase with age
      • rate of gaining competence is a personal characteristic
    • Intelligence quotient (William Stern)
      • MA/CAx100 (MA = Mental Age, CA = Chronological Age)
      • Today IQ is an individual score in comparison to norms of other individuals of the same age
  • Lewis Terman created Stanford-Binet test (verbal items)
  • Arthur Otis
    • Army Alpha (verbal)
    • Army Beta (non-verbal)
  • Weschler (verbal and non-verbal)   WAIS  WISC  WPPSI  WAIS III  WISC IV

NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE

  • Two major approaches
    • Psychometric – structure and types of mental competencies
    • Cognitive – thought process underlying mental competencies

Psychometric theoretical approach

  • Statistical study of intelligence using observable measures
  • Factor analysis was used to arrive at components
  • Reduction of larger measures to smaller clusters
    • Charles Spearman
      • g-factor – general intelligence
      • s-factor – specific intelligence
    • L.L. Thurstone
      • 7 distinct abilities called “Primary Mental Abilities”
        • verbal comprehension
        • perceptual speed
        • number
        • spatial visualisation
        • associative memory
        • word fluency
        • reasoning
  • (Study Tip: VPN-SAW-R)
    • Raymond Cattell and Horn
      • Broke Spearman’s general intelligence “g” into 2 subtypes
        • Crystallized intelligence (gc) is the ability to apply previously learned knowledge to current problems (vocals and info tests)
          • Creates expertise
        • Fluid intelligence (gf) – arriving at novel problem solving situation which does not develop out of personal experience 
          • inductive reasoning
          • reason abstractly, logical, management of info in working memory
      • Humans move from fluid to crystallized through life
    • Carollus
      • Three structure model 
        • g
        • + Broad
        • Narrow
    • Guilford’s Structure of Intellect Model
      • Operations (5)
      • Products (6)
      • Contents (5)
      • 150 components are possible
      • Also known as
        • SI Theory
        • Factor analysis
        • OPC Model
Operations (5) Products (6) Contents (5)
Cognition   Unitssingle item of knowledge Visualperceived through seeing
2. Memory 2. Classes sets sharing common attributes 2. Auditory learning
3. Divergent Production 3. Relations units linked as opposites, associates, etc. 3. Symbolic symbols
4. Convergent Production 4. Systems multiple relationsinterrelated networks 4. Semantic meaning and ideas
5. Evaluation 5. Transformation changes – prospective, conversion or mutation of knowledge 5. Behavioural Acts
  6. Implication prediction, inferences, anticipation of knowledge  
  • Gave emphasis to divergent production (thinking) with 4 characteristics
    • Fluency – great number of ideas
    • Flexibility – variety of approaches
    • Originality – new, novel ideas
    • Elaboration – systematize and organise ideas
  • (Study Tip: F for FOE)

Cognitive Process theories

  • Explore specific information-processing and cognitive process that underlie intellectual ability
  • Robert Sternberg- Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
    • psychological process and diverse intelligence
    • 3 components:
    • Meta components
      • Higher order processes used to plan and regulate task performance
      • Type of fluid intelligence
    • Performance
      • mental processes used to perform based on experience
      • type of crystallized intelligence
    • Knowledge acquisition
      • learning from experiences, store information, combine new insights and previously acquired information
      •  combining crystallized and fluid intelligence
    • Further 3 different classes of adaptive problem solving were suggested (APC)
      • Analytical intelligence
        • academically oriented problem solving
        • traditional intelligence
      • Practical intelligence
        • skills to cope with daily needs
      • Creative intelligence
        • mental skills for novel problems
  • Other theories
    • Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
      • Visuospatial intelligence
      • Interpersonal intelligence
      • Linguistic intelligence
      • Logical-mathematical intelligence
      • Natural intelligence
      • Intrapersonal intelligence
      • Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
      • Musical intelligence
  •  (Study Tip: VILL NIBM)
    • Jensen Intelligence Theory (Arthur Jensen)
      • Level 1 (equal among races)
        • memory ability and simple associative learning
      • Level 2 (unequal among races)
        • abstract reasoning and conceptual thought
        • Whites and Asians have more
    • Vernon
      • Hierarchical Model of Intelligence 
  • Culture Fair/Free Intelligence Tests 
    • 1st – Army Examination Beta
    • Non-verbal material
      • They include Learning Potential Assessment Device (LPAD)
      • Culture Free Self Esteem Inventories
      • Black Intelligence Tests of Cultural Homogeneity
      • Raven Progressive Matrices
    • Not completely free
    • Cattell’s Culture Fair
      • 1-3 scales
      • Age > 4
        • Cultural experience
        • Verbal ability
        • Educational level
        • Special education
  • Goleman – Emotional Intelligence
    • 5 components
      • Emotional self-awareness
      • Self-regulation
      • Motivation
      • Empathy
      • Social skills
  • Emotional Intelligence given by John D. Mayer and Peter Salovey
    • 4 components
      • Perceiving emotions nonverbally
      • Using emotions to facilitate thought
      • Understanding emotions and creating action
      • Managing emotions
    • Measured by – Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence

Measurement of IQ

  • WAIS – verbal (6) and Performance (5) = (11)
    • Verbal & Performance
      • Information
      • Digit symbol
      • Comprehension
      • Picture completion
      • Arithmetic
      • Block Design
      • Similarities
      • Picture Arrangement
      • Letter-number sequencing
      • Object Assembly
      • Vocabulary
  • Psychometric standards
    • Correlation of IQ and Academic Performances are .60 for high school
  • Flynn effect
    • increase in intelligence across the world
    • 3 points per decade
  • Cultural measurements
    • 2 ways
      • Reasoning problems without any cultural knowledge base (eg. Ravens Progressive Matrices)
      • creating measures tied to specific cultures
  • Heredity, Intelligence and Environment correlation coefficient
    • 0.50 – 0.70 due to genes
  • Group differences
    • Arthur Jensen argued for ethnically based intelligence 
    • Difference are due to genetics of different ethnicities
  • Research on IQ shows:
    • Japanese have highest IQ.
    • Asian-Americans less than White Americans in verbal but more on spatial and mathematical reasoning
    • Hispanic same as white
    • African-Americans below white
  • Is intelligence testing biased?
    • 2 types
      • a) Outcome bias
        • underestimation of a person’s true intellectual ability
      • b) Predictive bias
        • Successful measurement for some groups but not others
  • Sex differences in types of intelligences
    • Men > women on spatial tools, target directed, mathematical reasoning
    • Women > men on perceptual speed, verbal fluency, mathematical calculations
  • Extremes of Intelligence
    • Intellectually gifted have an IQ > 130
    • Success depends on
      • highly developed mental abilities
      • creative problem solving
      • motivation and dedication
  • Mental Retardation
    • Mild – 50 – 70
    • Moderate – 35 – 50
    • Severe – 20 – 35
    • Profound – < 20

Creativity

  • Mel Rhodes
    • 4 P’s
      • process
      • product
      • person
      • place
  • Wallas
    • 5 stages
  • Guilford
    • Convergent thinking
    • Divergent thinking
  • Major approaches
    • Guilford
      • based on divergent thinking (production) Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, Elaboration
      • Traits of creative people and not creative people can help distinguish
      • Many components or traits
      • Think with greater fluency
            • ideational theory
            • associational theory
            • expressional theory
          • Flexibility
            • spontaneous
            • adaptive
          • Originality
          • Elaboration
          • Quantity vs Quality
          • Group vs Individual thinking
    • Mednick 
      • to think of an idea in a new, improbable way
      • created Remote Associates Test (RAT)
      • word finding test
        • three words are given, the idea is to think of one word that resembles all three present 
    • Wallas – predicting of creative thought depends on previous creative accomplishment
      • 4 processes
        • Preparation
        • Incubation
        • Illumination
        • Verification
    • Terrence
      • Minnesota studies confirmed that creative boys felt alienated because:
        • sanctions against divergence
        • may not be well rounded
        • learn on their own
        • attempt difficult tasks
        • searching for a purpose
      • Terrence Test for Creative Thinking (TTCT) based on creativity process

●Threshold Theory – Intelligence is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for creativity. There is a moderate positive relationship between creativity and intelligence until IQ ~120.

●Certification Theory – Creativity is not intrinsically related to intelligence. Instead, individuals are required to meet the requisite level intelligence in order to gain a certain level of education/work, which then in turn offers the opportunity to be creative. Displays of creativity are moderated by intelligence.

●Interference Theory – Extremely high intelligence might interfere with creative ability.

  • Creativity and Intelligence
    • Getzel and Jackson
      • When contrasting ‘high creativity’ and ‘high i.q.’ groups, it was found that the ‘high i.q.’ group was preferred by teachers
      • independent traits (adolescents)
      • Creative children do not do as well on standardized tests as there is no room for creativity.
      • used word association
      • uses of things
      • hidden shape
      • fables 
      • make up problems
    • Wallach and Kogan administered 5 measures of creativity
      • Creativity tests and intelligence measures correlated r = .09.

  • Spearman
      • decided separate states to creativity
      • Intelligence threshold below which creativity cannot exist